The great emperor of India in the Mughal Dynasty is still remembered as “Akbar the Great”. But do you know how was his destiny forged into such marvelous era of the country. The ruler of maximum of India then, was a kid when he sat on the Throne of Mughal kingdom. None of his ancestors and the then rulers would have imagined his success. His father Humayun ran into many battles and was defeated several times. Once when he was on a exile and run after a war, Akbar was born to his wife Hamida Banu Begum.
Mohammad Jalaluddin was the childhood name of Akbar and he was also called Jalal by his mother. His upbringing was done by another lady known as Maha Manga. She was known as the Dai Maa of Jalal. Akbar could never complete his theoretical studies and even couldn’t read or write. But as a religious person he always learnt the writings of Kuraan by poets reciting it for him. He though loved art and that can be seen from various singers, poets and artists which flourished in Mughal courts.
When Humayun passed away the kingdom fell apart in hands of Raja Hemu. Under the extremely astonishing supervision of Bairam Khan, General of Mughal army, Raja Hemu was defeated and the throne once again was captured by Mughals. The new emperor took his first step on 14 Feb 1956 towards a long journey of 49 years to rule the kingdom. Whenever its a matter of supreme power and throne, bloodshed is common among rulers and even in relations. Many of his brothers like Hakim Mirza from Kabul attacked akbar several times to occupy more land. Adham Khan, son of Maha Manga, also had a lust for power and rose against the emperor. Many times Akbar curbed the revolts done by Adham Khan, but one day when he killed the most honorable minister of the court, Adgah Khan, he was threw from fort by Akbar himself. Akbar shifted from Delhi to Agra and made this city as his capital. Agar was a beautiful place, rich in culture, connectivity to all provinces and money.
Despite of these rebels, Akbar maintained a vast empire north of river Godavari, which stretched over on almost whole of India from Kabul. His grandfather (Babur) invaded India from that part of the land. Akbar fought many battles against the prominent rulers of Mewar (Rana Uday Singh and Maharana Pratap) and lately succeeded in capturing Chittor- capital of Mewar. Akbar loved Elephants and always had them in war.
Akbar was a face of change in the Indian history. He ruled up to 1605 until his death and in this reign of 49 years as a ruler he changed a lot. He himself got married to a Rajput princess from Aamer and promoted Hindu-Muslim unity. He introduced Din-e-Ilahi, which meant giving equal respect to all flourishing religions and customs in the country. He imposed off the tax on Hindu pilgrimage then known as Jajiya. He treated every men equally and even got his son Salim (Jehangir) married to a Hindu Rajput princess. His court was full with both Hindu and Muslim patrons. He had Raja Maan Singh of Aamer as his chief of army, Raja Todar Mal as chief of finance, Raja Birbal, Abul Fazal, Tansen etc. These people were like gems to Mughal court and to Akbar personally. Women were also in power in his reign. His court always had women to attend important matters and they possessed right to give their views to the king. Women learnt fighting skills and also literature. Humayun Nama was the book of his father written by Gulbadan Begum. Ain-I-Akbari was written by Abul fazal. He started Diwaan-e-Khaas for personal and important political matters and Diwaan-e- Aam for public matters. He was so well connected to his people that due to their king’s courtesy they named him “Akbar”.
He also encouraged Persian architecture in buildings and maintained trade relations with west including guns, gun powder and spices. He laid down the foundation of Fatehpur Sikri near Agra. Agra fort in itself is a great example of Mughal architecture. After the rebellions from his own son Salim and grandson Khusrau, he was less interested in politics and was tired. He eventually fell ill and died in 1605. The circumstances in which he became a king, the way in which he created an emperor of the whole kingdom out of him, the way he ruled it for 49 successful years, the relations he laid within the country and with western world, the extreme changes he brought to society for its betterment, the promotion of art, literature and architecture which he encouraged, and with all ups and downs the way he ruled, he surely was a Born Emperor.